Sol Central Government
The Sol Central Government - commonly referred to as SolGov or SCG, is a federal republic composed of numerous human states across many solar systems, which governs the majority of human space. Its primary governing bodies are the Assemblies, which are in turn led by a secretary-general, who is elected by the assemblies. Member states have a great degree of freedom in their actions, while the SCG manages sapient rights, security, the economy, and diplomacy for humanity as a whole. It has a diverse population, including many non-humans, and encompasses a wide range of systems, territories, habitats, and stellar bodies. The Sol Central Government and its member states make up one of the more advanced and powerful civilizations in the known galaxy.
When Humanity first started colonizing the Solar System, it was under the banner of the Old Earth, nation-states like China, America, and India planted their flags in the dirt of planets and moons throughout the system. Shortly behind them, the private corporations followed, establishing corporate outposts and research stations away from the prying eyes of Earth. As the situation on Earth deteriorated, the colonies funded by corporations grew more powerful in the absence of oversight, and the colonies that eventually lost contact with their parent nation-states were left on their own. While some withered, being forced to fend for themselves, and others disappeared entirely, the strongest banded together and started to form some of the settlements and governments that we know so well today. As the flow of people from Earth grew, so did the settlements that had survived.
When Old Earth eked out a unified government under the banner of the Terran Commonwealth, it found a Solar System that had grown and developed independently of Earther control. When the Commonwealth re-exerted its power over its colonies, many places found themselves underrepresented by a body that did not have Colonial interests in mind. Eventually, war broke out. A few Martian colonies band together to form the Ares Confederation, and fight to gain their freedom. The first interstellar wars take a toll on development but end in victory for the Commonwealth.
While full control over the Solar System may have been what the Commonwealth wanted, it wasn't what the Commonwealth needed, at least after Humanity slipped the bonds of its Solar System. Forced to confront its powerlessness to control an Inter-System collection of highly varied colonies, the Commonwealth devises a solution.
The Sol Central Government was created under the guiding principles of the Solar Declaration of Rights, which eventually became the Universal Declaration of Rights, based off of the Declaration of Human Rights of old United Nations. Recognizing the growth of Mars into a scientific and military powerhouse in Sol, the capital of SolGov is established on the red planet. All former members of the Commonwealth are allowed, finally, the true determination as to whether or not they join the new system, and most do. As the role of the Corporations in founding the SCGB could not be understated, they were given status on the same level as the other states. SolGov handles such broad questions such as the direction of Humanity and as mundane problem as trade regulations.
The perks of membership included free trade and movement between the whole of SolGov territory, humanitarian aid to developing stations and colonies, as well as any that suffered a disaster, and eventually military protection from the criminal element that eventually followed Humanity into space. Members could enforce laws within their own borders, provided they followed the Declaration of Rights, and periodically allow observers to examine their societies for compliance.
As colonization continued in bordering systems, and time passed, and humanity continued to stretch out into the stars. SolGov shepherded the peoples of Earth, continuing and creating treaties with the Skrell, making the first contact with the Unathi, and defending humanity from the Vox. Gateways and Bluespace drives allow Humans to spread further and faster than ever before. As humanity develops, so does SolGov, while recently corporations have outpaced the spread of SolGov's influence, SolGov is still highly influential in the more developed systems, and sometimes extends its light as far as the frontier, much to the annoyance of the TSCs.
The assemblies largely form a basis for diplomacy and trade across human space, managing economic agreements, mining and environmental concerns, and ensuring Sapient Rights are upheld. For example, during the Synthetic Intelligence Rights Crisis of 2558, both the Solar and Colonial Assemblies declared Posibrains to be sapient, and therefore protected by the Universal Declaration of Rights.
While member states manage affairs that fall under SolGov's jurisdiction within their own borders, including trade agreement and diplomacy between individual member states; gateways and the spaces between states are SolGov's jurisdiction, and any SolGov personnel and outposts within a member state are considered immune from that state's laws. SolGov's main presence can be found on most colonies and stations in the form of aid missions and schools, in space protecting gateways and establishing navigational beacons in nebulae, and even on the frontier, as Colonial Marshals track down criminals that have fled from SolGov administered systems to what they think is safe anonymity. Most of SolGov's revenue comes from taxes on the use of its gateways, communication systems, and secure trade routes, typically higher for non-members, as well as regular funding by corporations and individual member states. While SolGov has no say over legal interactions between member states, it is permitted by its charter to negotiate with other political entities, human or otherwise. While the many organizations of SolGov are staffed by SolGov citizens, member states often send their own personnel to serve and gain experience.
The Sol Central Government Charter is the foundational treaty of the Sol Central Government. It was signed at the Palace of Nations in Geneva, on Earth, by the Terran Commonwealth and the founding members of the SCG on 12 November 2436. It went into effect on the first day of 2437, and marked the start of a new chapter in Humanity's history. The Charter defines the workings of the Sol Central Government, codifies its laws, and organizes its members. Functioning both as a constitution and a binding treaty, the Charter is what grants the SCG its powers and responsibilities. All states that have ratified the Charter must abide by it, or risk sanctions, punishments, and even expulsion, though the latter has never occurred. The charter contains the legal code of the Sol Central Government, largely based off of the Universal Declaration of Rights. While those human states that have not ratified the Charter do not have to abide by its rules and regulations, the SCG has enforced the Universal Declaration of Rights in non-members, though only in two extreme instances.