== History ==
Following the establishment of government funded
colonies on the moon and Mars in the late 21st century further colonisation of the Sol system and beyond was initially carried out by well funded corporate and private investment groups, leading to a great many early colonies being founded for profit, with loose oversight from [[Earth]] governments and agencies. As Earth in the mid 22nd century began to enter a period of great strife and upheaval, many of these colonies began to lose support and assistance from the planet. Now forced to defend for themselves, these now independent colonies began to struggle or collapse outright. The more viable colonies maintained trade and mutual assistance agreements with each other, fostering the beginning of a wider human community that did not involve Earth.
In the 23rd century, recognising their now limited influence on the galactic scale and general irrelevance to the wider human galactic community, the fragmented old Earth nation states came together under a single banner, one Earth government, branding itself as the Terran Commonwealth. In an effort to re-consolidate power and bring the myriad of independent colonies back under their influence the Commonwealth began reestablishing an overarching government in the Sol system and many colonies beyond. This was not without issues, however, as a great many colonies were resistant and felt little loyalty to Earth. An opposing faction was formed, called the Ares Confederation. An alliance of convenience between numerous groups and ideologies, the confederation sought to limit the Commonwealths influence. Following years of war the confederation collapsed, and the Terran Commonwealth looked to further consolidate itself and rebuild. The war took a toll on the Sol system, leading to a number of crucial resource shortages, and the Commonwealth's focus became one of exploration and expansion.
== Government ==
The SCG Assemblies form a basis for diplomacy and trade across human space. Under the leadership of their elected secretary general, the Assemblies navigate economic agreements, mining and environmental concerns, and matters of sapient rights. For example, during the Synthetic Intelligence Crisis of 2558, both the Solar and Colonial Assemblies declared posibrains to be sapient and therefore protected by the Universal Declaration of Rights. The bulk of the SCG's revenue comes from corporate taxes, as well as fees for the use of its gateways, communication systems, and secure trade routes. Dues are of course higher for non-members.
While member states manage their own internal affairs, gateways and the space between states remain under the jurisdiction of the SCG . Additionally, any SCG personnel and installations within a member state are considered immune from local law. On most colonies and space stations, the SCG manifests itself in the form of aid missions, hospitals, and schools. Though the many organizations of the SCG are primarily comprised of human SCG citizens, non-member states often send their own personnel to apply and gain experience through service. In space, the SCG protects gateways and establishes navigational beacons in nebulae, and on frontier worlds, the SCG 's Colonial Marshals track down fugitives. While the SCG does not govern legal interactions between individual member states, it is permitted by its charter to negotiate with other political entities, human or otherwise, on behalf of its members.
There are a number of [[SCG Organisations]], those being departments operated by the Sol Central Government, that perform a myriad of specialised tasks, ranging from the diplomatic service to law enforcement.
=== Charter === Signed by the Terran Commonwealth and founding members of the Sol Central Government at the Palace of Nations, city of Geneva, planet of Earth, the SCG Charter is the republic's founding treaty. The signing occurred on 12 November 2436 and was put into effect on the first day of 2437, marking a new chapter for humanity. Drawing from the Universal Declaration of Rights, the Charter defines the workings of the SCG , codifies its laws, and organizes its members. Functioning both as a constitution and a binding treaty, the Charter grants the SCG its powers and responsibilities. All states that have ratified the Charter must abide by it or risk sanctions, punishments, or even expulsion (though the latter has never occurred). Human states that have not ratified the Charter are not subject to its rules and regulations, but must nevertheless remain compliant with the Universal Declaration of Rights. Non-members in violation of the Universal Declaration of Rights can expect an SCG response in the form of diplomatic action and trade sanctions, though in extreme cases, the SCG has enforced the Universal Declaration of Rights with military force.
=== Solar Assembly === The Solar Assembly embodies the remnants of the SCG 's founding body. It manages affairs within Sol and its largest neighbors, Tau Ceti and Alpha Centauri. While any member of the Solar or Colonial Assemblies can propose a peacekeeping operation, humanitarian mission, or other major action, only the Solar Assembly can approve it . Due to the size of both assemblies, votes are majority based.
Any sovereign state in the Solar System with a human population of over 50, 000 is eligible for membership, though two members with smaller populations remain from the original founding states. In addition, any extrasolar states with a human population of over one billion on one celestial body—planetary, lunar, or otherwise—are eligible for membership, though no extrasolar state has met the criteria in decades. Corporations, even if Sol-based, are not eligible for membership in the Solar Assembly, though they can become members of the Colonial Assembly. Exceptions to this rule exist in the form of a few minor Sol-based corporations, including [[Aether Atmospherics and Recycling|Aether Atmospherics]], who were members of the SCG founding body. None of Earth's nation states are Solar Assembly members, largely due to their own instability. However, several sit on the Solar Assembly as observers.
Colonial Assembly === The colonial assembly is open to any extrasolar state with a human population of over 500, 000 in one system. Included are any states on a planet or moon, a union of smaller states under one banner, or even an entire allied system. Corporations headquartered in the Sol system may also gain membership to the Colonial Assembly. Six seats on the Colonial Assembly belong to elected representatives from the Solar Assembly, which change every year. While the ability to approve major SCG action rests with the Solar Assembly, the Colonial Assembly may veto such actions with a 66 percent majority vote, though such an event has yet to occur. Majority-human organizations not eligible or desiring to sit on the Colonial Assembly may request observer status. The Free Trade Union is among the most respected observers due to its high influence in human populations. It has been suggested on multiple occasions, without result, that the Free Trade Union be granted voting status despite their lack of borders or physical government presence.
In 2547, a group of radical Skrellian separatists applied for membership to the Colonial Assembly, but were denied entrance to maintain a positive relationship with the Skrell. The issue sparked a debate over allowing xenosapients into the SCG ; the debate has not been formally resolved.
=== Political Parties ===