Sol Central Government
When humans first started colonizing the Solar System, it was under the banner of nation-states like China, America, and India. As the situation on Earth deteriorated, the colonies funded by corporations grew more powerful in the absence of oversight. Colonies that relied on the nation-states would either gain independence or dissolve. While some withered, being forced to fend for themselves, others disappeared entirely - the more economically well-off began creating alliances and started to form some larger settlements and governments in the Sol solar system.
Earth, eventually regaining it's former power, formed the Terran Commonwealth. When the Commonwealth attempted to reassert it's power over the colonies, a war broke out. Independent colonies formed the Ares Confederation, opposed to the Terran Commonwealth's attempt to regain control of the solar system. The war was fought by several factions, loosely tied to various ideologies of the past. After some years of intense interstellar combat, the Terran Commonwealth would regain control of the solar system. Forced to control a large amount of colonies, and depleting resource values, the Terran Commonwealth would then focus on exploration of solar systems beyond Sol.
After establishing a network of colonies outside of Sol, the Terran Commonwealth would formally rename itself to the Sol Central Government. Recognizing the growth of Mars into a scientific and military powerhouse in Sol, the capital of the SCG is established on the red planet. Membership in the SCG is automatically granted to any colonies that are established outside of the Sol system.
As colonization continued in bordering systems, and time passed, and humanity continued to stretch out into the stars. SCG shepherded the peoples of Earth, continuing and creating treaties with the Skrell, making the first contact with the Unathi, and defending humanity from the Vox. Gateways and Bluespace drives allow Humans to spread further and faster than ever before.
The Sol Central Government is the largest sovereign nation under the control of Humanity. The SCG encompasses 19 systems. Their territory reaches as far as 28 lightyears from Sol, and they have influence in independent systems far beyond that as well. The SCG holds direct control over 13 habitable systems and numerous colonies within those systems. Additionally, the SCG maintains a number of permanently-habitable installations on uninhabitable worlds or in space. However, the population of these artificial habitats is negligible.
While Moghes is within the borders of the Sol Central Government, it is not a member-state and remains under the independent governance of the Unathi. However, the SCG does maintain orbital installations in the system, and, with the relatively primitive technology of the Unathi, there has yet to be significant opposition to these installations.
The assemblies largely form a basis for diplomacy and trade across human space, managing economic agreements, mining and environmental concerns, and ensuring Sapient Rights are upheld. For example, during the Synthetic Intelligence Rights Crisis of 2558, both the Solar and Colonial Assemblies declared Posibrains to be sapient, and therefore protected by the Universal Declaration of Rights.
While member states manage affairs that fall under SCG's jurisdiction within their own borders, including trade agreement and diplomacy between individual member states; gateways and the spaces between states are SCG's jurisdiction, and any SCG personnel and outposts within a member state are considered immune from that state's laws. SCG's main presence can be found on most colonies and stations in the form of aid missions and schools, in space protecting gateways and establishing navigational beacons in nebulae, and even on the frontier, as Colonial Marshals track down criminals that have fled from SCG administered systems to what they think is safe anonymity. Most of SCG's revenue comes from taxes on the use of its gateways, communication systems, and secure trade routes, typically higher for non-members, as well as regular funding by corporations and individual member states. While SCG has no say over legal interactions between member states, it is permitted by its charter to negotiate with other political entities, human or otherwise. While the many organizations of SCG are staffed by SCG citizens, member states often send their own personnel to serve and gain experience.
The Sol Central Government Charter is the foundation treaty of the SCG. It was signed at the Palace of Nations in Geneva, on Earth, by the Terran Commonwealth and the founding members of the SCG on 12 November 2436. It went into effect on the first day of 2437, and marked the start of a new chapter in Humanity's history. The Charter defines the workings of the SCG, codifies its laws, and organizes its members. Functioning both as a constitution and a binding treaty, the Charter is what grants the SCG its powers and responsibilities. All states that have ratified the Charter must abide by it, or risk sanctions, punishments, and even expulsion, though the latter has never occurred. The charter contains the legal code of the SCG, largely based off of the Universal Declaration of Rights. While those human states that have not ratified the Charter do not have to abide by its rules and regulations, the SCG has enforced the Universal Declaration of Rights in non-members, though only in two extreme instances.
The Solar Assembly is what's left of the founding body. Any sovereign state in the Solar System with a human population of over 50,000 is eligible for membership, though two members with smaller populations remain from the original SCGB. In addition, any extrasolar states with a human population of over one billion on one body, planetary, lunar, or otherwise, is eligible for membership, though an extrasolar member hasn't been accepted in decades. While currently, Corporations based in Sol are only eligible for membership in the Colonial Assembly, a few minor corporations from the time of the SCGB remain, including Aether Atmospherics. While none of the nation-states of Earth are on the Solar Assembly, and likely won't be any time soon due to stigma and the inability to control their own borders, several do sit on the Assembly as observers. The Solar Assembly manages affairs within Sol and its largest neighbors, Tau Ceti and Centuari included. While any member of the Solar or Colonial Assemblies can propose a a peacekeeping operation, or major aid mission, only the Solar Assembly can approve it. Due to the size of both assemblies, votes are majority based.
The colonial assembly open to any extrasolar state with a human population of over 500,000 in one system. That includes any states on a planet or moon, a union of smaller states under one banner, or even an entire allied system. Any corporation headquartered in Sol may also gain membership of the Colonial Assembly. In 2547, a radical group of Skrell separatists applied for membership in the Colonial Assembly, they were denied in order to maintain a positive relationship with the Skrell, but it sparked a debate over theoretically allowing Xeno-Sapients into SCG in the future that has not been resolved to date. Six seats on the Colonial Assembly belong to elected representatives from the Solar Assembly, which typically change every year. While the ability to approve major military action rests with the Solar Assembly, the Colonial Assembly may veto such an action with a majority vote of more than 2/3 of the members, though this hasn't occurred yet. Organizations containing human members, but not eligible or desiring to sit on the Colonial Assembly may request observer status. The Free Trade Union is one of the most respected of the observers, due to its influence in a large swathe of human population, and it has been suggested on multiple occasions, without result, that they be given voting status, despite their lack of borders or centralized organization.
There are a number of different political parties in the government. The major parties are listed below:
|Citizens for Free Enterprise & Trade||A party made entirely of "bought" politicians, the CFET has a single goal: money. If something can somehow give transtellar corporations more money, then they will no doubt support. Quite frankly, they might even be behind it. Few member states have many people who support the CFET.|
|Leftists for Direct Democracy & Freedom||Made up of far-left to “post-left” parties. Authoritarian socialists, Neo-Jucheists, Stalinist-Maoist-Castroist-Marcosists. Always anti-capitalist. Believes in getting rid of the military. Does not like this style of democracy. Against member state autonomy. Against further colonization. Generally more popular on the frontier.|
|Progressive Alliance of Citizens||Made up of center, center-left, and left-wing parties. Pro-integration of aliens, generally against increasing funding for the military. Mixture between being anti-megacorp and pro-megacorp. Not for colonization. Very much against the Confederation. Very large, so popular just about everywhere.|
|Solarians for Freedom & Rights||Made up of center-right to right-wing parties. Pro-federalism (i.e, more general autonomy for member states), generally pro-religion, pro-human rights. Mildly xenophobic. Very large, so popular just about everywhere.|
|Sol of Nations & Order||Made up of right-wing to far-right parties. Very xenophobic, pro-military, for more colonization. Split between leaving the Confederation and starting another war to try and seize “what is rightfully SCG’s.” Sometimes anti-capitalist. Almost always pro-colonization and in some cases pro-war with other nations, some even advocating a form of "legal war" between member states to settle disputes. Quite popular on the frontier and prisons.|
|United Green-Left of Sol||Made up of left to far-left parties. Believes in letting aliens within Sol space vote, believes in automatic citizenship granted to anyone within Sol space longer than a year. Against funding the military a lot. Generally anti-capitalist. In general, against megacorps and further colonization. Popular on certain planets within Sol.|
Unlike the United Nations on Old Earth, SCG maintains its own standing police and military forces, both under the aegis of the Committee of Defense and Security. Somewhat controversially, the CDS is also responsible for managing intelligence, counterterrorism, and border security in SCG territory. While accusations of abuse by internal security are nothing new, the current cold war with the Terran Confederation has internal tensions at an all time high as almost all communications traffic is being monitored. Gateways and space lanes have become increasingly militarized, and it's not uncommon for pilots to be detained indefinitely if their flight paths come too close to any sensitive assets. Though the most visible portions of the CDS are the Defense Forces and the Colonial Marshal Bureau, it also manages the Office of Interstellar Intelligence, the Bureau of Counterterrorism, the Assembly Security Agency, the Emergency Management Bureau, the Rescue Service, the Bureau of Border Security, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Bounty Office, the Bureau of Corrections, and the Home Guard.
The SCG Defence Forces consist of an Army, for operations on planets, moons, or larger planetoids, and a Fleet, including a Marine component, responsible for operations in space, aboard habitats or vessels, and the gateway network.
The Fleet is by far the larger component, composed of dozens of larger vessels like carriers and cruisers, a few massive battlecruisers and supercarriers, and hundreds of smaller vessels and strike craft. There are five standing Fleets under Fleet Command, they are spread throughout security details and patrols.
The Army is smaller, and only maintains minimal troop numbers at any given time. Units used to be composed of integrated forces, made up of military personnel from across the member states, as well as SCG citizens serving permanently or temporarily in the Defense Forces, with member states rotating their forces in and out of use as needed. However, with the increase in the number of SCG citizens, and general paranoia relating to the Confederation, the Assemblies voted to restrict service in the Defense Forces to SCG citizens, preventing conflicts of interest among different colonial groups. In the event of a major peacekeeping operation all members are still required to offer military aid, but with their own individual units instead of general numbers.
SGDF are rarely seen in large numbers outside of Sol and its immediate neighbors. Typically any outpost in a hostile area, or on the border of human space and its Xeno-Sapient neighbors, will have a small contingent for protection. Every gateway in SCG territory has a crew running traffic control operations, and a ship or two protecting the gate itself. The closer you get to the inner systems, the more presence you'll see of the SGDF. Mostly smaller ships doing customs work and patrolling trade corridors. Only on two occasions has the SGDF been mobilized for a major peacekeeping operation, both in response to major sapient rights violations on non member worlds. Occasionally a member world will request aid in dealing with unrest, a riot, or piracy problems, and smaller missions will be tasked to deal with them.